Plumbing has been around since ancient civilizations, including Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese. As cities in these areas developed, they created ways to irrigate their crops and provide public restrooms, wastewater disposal, and portable water.
Plumbingis any system that transports fluids for a wide range of applications. It uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other appliances to transport fluids.
Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste disposal, and drinking water supply are among the most common uses of plumbing, but not limited to these applications. The word 'plumbing' derives from Latin for lead, plumbum, since the first effective pipes used in Roman times were lead pipes. Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains, fittings, valves and fittings installed for the distribution of drinking water for drinking, heating and washing, and for the disposal of waste in the water. It also refers to the specialized trade that installs and maintains it (plumbers). The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy.Plumbing reached its heyday early in ancient Rome, where expansive aqueduct systems, tile wastewater disposal, and widespread use of lead pipes were introduced.
With the fall of Rome, both water supply and sanitation stagnated or regressed for more than 1000 years. Improvement was very slow until the growth of densely populated modern cities in the 19th century. During this period, public health authorities began to push for better waste disposal systems to prevent or control disease epidemics. Previously, the waste disposal system consisted simply of collecting the waste and dumping it on the ground or in a river. Eventually, the development of separate groundwater and sewer systems eliminated open wastewater ditches and cesspools.
The use of lead for drinking water declined significantly after World War II due to increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper pipes were introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes. Ancient water systems relied on gravity for water supply, using pipes or channels generally made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel strips were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. The logs were used for water distribution in England almost 500 years ago. American cities began using hollowed out logs between the late 18th century and the 19th century.
Today, most plumbing supply pipes are made of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as dirt) is made of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron. Plumbing fixtures are interchangeable devices that use water and can be connected to a building's plumbing system. They are considered accessories in the sense that they are semi-permanent parts of buildings which are not normally owned or maintained separately. Plumbing fixtures are seen and designed for end users. Examples include toilets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice machines, humidifiers, air washers, fountains and eyewash stations.
Much of the plumbing work in populated areas is regulated by government or quasi-governmental agencies due to its direct impact on public health safety and welfare. Plumbing installation and repair work in residences and other buildings should generally be performed in accordance with plumbing and building codes to protect building inhabitants and ensure safe quality construction for future buyers. If permits are required to work plumbing contractors generally obtain them from authorities on behalf of homeowners or buildings. In the UK the professional body is the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering. Throughout the 1850s New York City worked on the construction of its sewers miles of pipes laid beneath the surface of the city replacing faulty systems which were first installed in 1740s with tunnels that are still in use. In Crete the Minoans developed a pipe system that included underground clay pipes they are also credited with inventing flush toilets known as toilets. Just a hundred years ago indoor plumbing only existed in homes of rich people but by 1829 Isaiah Rogers had built eight toilets at Tremont Hotel in Boston making it first hotel with indoor plumbing In 1833 White House was equipped with running water on main floor. In mid-1930s legislators and medical professionals agreed that sanitary piping was necessary for public health hygienic guidelines and plumbing codes helped guide installation of hygienic systems throughout. In 1937 Alfred Moen invented single-lever faucet after burning his hands several times with hot water from two-hand faucet he felt need for single-lever faucet that still exists today. In 1940s due to wartime restrictions on iron steel and copper American manufacturers had difficulty producing enough materials so they began using plastic instead. Indoor plumbing has come a long way since its beginnings in ancient civilizations it has evolved from rudimentary systems to modern day fixtures that provide us with clean safe drinking water as well as efficient waste disposal methods.